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Saturday, 30 August 2014

Arduino Astronomical Clock (or Arduino Pond Pump Controller!)

****** A lot of people land on this page. Welcome. There are a few updates on this project (the last being here.) so it's worth checking through the blog for updates. Thanks ******




It's been a great summer here in the UK. I built myself something I'd always wanted. A bit of a water feature in my garden. The sound of trickling water whilst relaxing in the garden ... ahhhh !

Well, I didn't like the thought of the pump running all night, wasting all that precious energy, so a solution was required....

The usual thoughts of a photodiode (even an led works as a photodiode, try it!) or LDR and comparator were soon dispelled, as I'd done such things as a kid, and it's a horrible thing to set up. Clouds causing shadows, neighbours outside lights switching it on etc etc ... no , we need something a little more sophisticated.

Now, a guy called Paul had done the same thing, but backwards (switching something on at dusk, and off at dawn), and his website here shows a rather nice unit built using recycled bits and pieces. "Just the job".. except I need more coding experience, so I blatantly copy some of Paul's thoughts and the use of the Timelord library.

Although I love the idea of recycling the display, I just don't have anything to recycle at present, other than the usual 2 x 16 LCD I've removed from a DAB radio, and a nice rotary encoder, so we'll go with those.

Now, keeping time....

This is a DS1307 module, purchased at very little expense (but a bit of a wait) on eBay. It's a fully fledged real-time clock, which sends it's data via an I2C interface. Just the job. On the rear of this fella is a button cell holder. Just beware. Order yours with the battery. You can get a version which takes an ordinary 2023 Lithium coin cell, or an LIR2023 Lithium-ion coin cell, which charges off the supplied 3.3 or 5 volts. Don't try and charge an ordinary 2023 cell. It won't be pretty.


OK, so that's our time keeping sorted.

So, time to conjure up some hardware....




My 5v supply is a little buck converter, which is driven from the 24VAC from the pond transformer. The Arduino (Nano in this example) is mounted on a bit of perf board, along with a relay module and the DS1307 RTC board.
















Now copy the code into your IDE, and alter the LATITUDE and LONGITUDE constants to your position on the planet. Google maps comes in handy here, or just pop outside with a GPS.
Upload the code (below) and your display should show something like this. American users may wish to note the date is in the UK standard (DD/MM/YYYY), you can, of course, alter the code to suit your own preferred format.

Now, if that's not UTC (and unless you're in the UK in winter, or your PC is set to UTC, it won't be) press and hold the button for 5 seconds. When you release the button the display will show "Set Year". You can alter this using the rotary encoder. If the encoder works back to front, reverse the wires to pins D2 & D3 on the Arduino board. Pressing the button moves the menu on to set Month. Pressing again, set the day, then hour and then minute. Once the minute is set the RTC is set, and the clock display will revert after 1 second. Excellent. The clock is now set and running.

Pressing and releasing the button once will display the current calculated sun rise and sunset time.

If you wait the display will revert back to the clock after a few seconds.

Pressing again whilst the sunrise and sunset times are display will allow you to alter the mode of the clock. Auto switches the output on when the sun rises, and off when it sets.
On switches the output on permanently. Finally off leaves the output off.


Finally, mount the whole shooting match on the wall, make it neat and go for a pint or two to celebrate!















Here's the code:

// Dawn & Dusk controller.
// 16th August 2014.
// (C) A.G.Doswell 2014
//
// Date and time functions using a DS1307 RTC connected via I2C and Wire lib
//
// Designed to control a relay connected to pin A3. Pin goes low during daylight hours and high during night. Relay uses active low, so is
// "On" during the day. This is connected to the fountain pump in my garden.
//
// Time is set using a rotary encoder with integral push button. The Encoder is connected to interrupt pins D2 & D3 (and GND), 
// and the push button to pin analogue 0 (and GND)
// The RTC is connections are: Analogue pin 4 to SDA. Connect analogue pin 5 to SCL.
// A 2 x 16 LCD display is connected as follows (NOTE. This is NOT conventional, as interrupt pins are required for the encoder)
//  Arduino LCD  
//  D4      DB7
//  D5      DB6
//  D6      DB5
//  D7      DB4
//  D12     RS
//  D13     E
//
// Use: Pressing and holding the button will enter the clock set mode (on release of the button). Clock is set using the rotary encoder. 
// The clock must be set to UTC.
// Pressing and releasing the button quickly will display the current sun rise and sun set times. Pressing the button again will enter the mode select menu. 
// Modes are AUTO: On when the sun rises, off when it sets.
//           ON: Permanently ON
//           OFF: Permanently OFF (Who'd have guessed it?)
//
// Change the LATTITUDE and LONGITUDE constant to your location.

#include <Wire.h>
#include "RTClib.h" // from https://github.com/adafruit/RTClib
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
#include <Encoder.h> // from http://www.pjrc.com/teensy/td_libs_Encoder.html
#include <TimeLord.h> // from http://swfltek.com/arduino/timelord.html. When adding it to your IDE, rename the file, removing the "-depreciated" 

RTC_DS1307 RTC; // Tells the RTC library that we're using a DS1307 RTC
Encoder knob(2, 3); //encoder connected to pins 2 and 3 (and ground)
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 13, 7, 6, 5, 4); // I used an odd pin combination because I need pin 2 and 3 for the interrupts.
//the variables provide the holding values for the set clock routine
int setyeartemp; 
int setmonthtemp;
int setdaytemp;
int sethourstemp;
int setminstemp;
int setsecs = 0;
int maxday; // maximum number of days in the given month
int TimeMins; // number of seconds since midnight
int TimerMode = 2; //mode 0=Off 1=On 2=Auto
int TimeOut = 10;
int TimeOutCounter;

// These variables are for the push button routine
int buttonstate = 0; //flag to see if the button has been pressed, used internal on the subroutine only
int pushlengthset = 3000; // value for a long push in mS
int pushlength = pushlengthset; // set default pushlength
int pushstart = 0;// sets default push value for the button going low
int pushstop = 0;// sets the default value for when the button goes back high

int knobval; // value for the rotation of the knob
boolean buttonflag = false; // default value for the button flag


const int TIMEZONE = 0; //UTC
const float LATITUDE = 51.89, LONGITUDE = -2.04; // set YOUR position here 
int Sunrise, Sunset; //sunrise and sunset expressed as minute of day (0-1439)
TimeLord myLord; // TimeLord Object, Global variable
byte sunTime[]  = {0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 13}; // 17 Oct 2013
int SunriseHour, SunriseMin, SunsetHour, SunsetMin; //Variables used to make a decent display of our sunset and sunrise time.

void setup () {
    //Serial.begin(57600); //start debug serial interface
    Wire.begin(); //start I2C interface
    RTC.begin(); //start RTC interface
    lcd.begin(16,2); //Start LCD (defined as 16 x 2 characters)
    lcd.clear(); 
    pinMode(A0,INPUT);//push button on encoder connected to A0 (and GND)
    digitalWrite(A0,HIGH); //Pull A0 high
    pinMode(A3,OUTPUT); //Relay connected to A3
    digitalWrite (A3, HIGH); //sets relay off (default condition)
    
    //Checks to see if the RTC is runnning, and if not, sets the time to the time this sketch was compiled.
    if (! RTC.isrunning()) {
    RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));
  }
 
 
    //Timelord initialisation
    myLord.TimeZone(TIMEZONE * 60);
    myLord.Position(LATITUDE, LONGITUDE);
    CalcSun ();
}
           

void loop () {
  
    DateTime now = RTC.now(); //get time from RTC
    //Display current time
    lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print(now.day(), DEC);
    lcd.print('/');
    lcd.print(now.month());
    lcd.print('/');
    lcd.print(now.year(), DEC);
    lcd.print("    ");
    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    lcd.print(now.hour(), DEC);
    lcd.print(':');
    if (now.minute() <10) 
      {
        lcd.print("0");
      }
    lcd.print(now.minute(), DEC);
    lcd.print(':');
    if (now.second() <10) 
      {
        lcd.print("0");
      }
    lcd.print(now.second());
    lcd.print("     ");
    
    //current time in minutes since midnight (used to check against sunrise/sunset easily)
    TimeMins = (now.hour() * 60) + now.minute();
    
    // Calculate sun times once a day at a minute past midnight
    if (TimeMins == 1) {
      CalcSun ();
    }
    if (TimerMode ==2) {
      if (TimeMins >= Sunrise && TimeMins <=Sunset-1) { //If it's after sunrise and before sunset, switch our relay on
          digitalWrite (A3, LOW);
          lcd.setCursor (13,1);
          lcd.print ("On ");
        }
        else {  //otherwise switch it off
          digitalWrite (A3, HIGH);
          lcd.setCursor (13,1);
          lcd.print ("Off");
        }
      }
       if (TimerMode ==0) {
         digitalWrite (A3, HIGH);
         lcd.setCursor (13,1);
         lcd.print ("Off");
       }
     
       if (TimerMode ==1) {
         digitalWrite (A3, LOW);
         lcd.setCursor (13,1);
         lcd.print ("On ");
       }
    
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    delay (10);
    
    if (pushlength <pushlengthset) {
     
      ShortPush ();   
    }
    
       
       //This runs the setclock routine if the knob is pushed for a long time
       if (pushlength >pushlengthset) {
         lcd.clear();
         DateTime now = RTC.now();
         setyeartemp=now.year(),DEC;
         setmonthtemp=now.month(),DEC;
         setdaytemp=now.day(),DEC;
         sethourstemp=now.hour(),DEC;
         setminstemp=now.minute(),DEC;
         setclock();
         pushlength = pushlengthset;
       };
}

//sets the clock
void setclock (){
   setyear ();
   lcd.clear ();
   setmonth ();
   lcd.clear ();
   setday ();
   lcd.clear ();
   sethours ();
   lcd.clear ();
   setmins ();
   lcd.clear();
   
   RTC.adjust(DateTime(setyeartemp,setmonthtemp,setdaytemp,sethourstemp,setminstemp,setsecs));
   CalcSun ();
   delay (1000);
   
}

// subroutine to return the length of the button push.
int getpushlength () {
  buttonstate = digitalRead(A0);  
       if(buttonstate == LOW && buttonflag==false) {     
              pushstart = millis();
              buttonflag = true;
          };
          
       if (buttonstate == HIGH && buttonflag==true) {
         pushstop = millis ();
         pushlength = pushstop - pushstart;
         buttonflag = false;
       };
       return pushlength;
}
// The following subroutines set the individual clock parameters
int setyear () {
   lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Year");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return setyeartemp;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) { //bit of software de-bounce
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    setyeartemp=setyeartemp + knobval;
    if (setyeartemp < 2014) { //Year can't be older than currently, it's not a time machine.
      setyeartemp = 2014;
    }
    lcd.print (setyeartemp);
    lcd.print("  "); 
    setyear();
}
  
int setmonth () {

   lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Month");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return setmonthtemp;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) {
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    setmonthtemp=setmonthtemp + knobval;
    if (setmonthtemp < 1) {// month must be between 1 and 12
      setmonthtemp = 1;
    }
    if (setmonthtemp > 12) {
      setmonthtemp=12;
    }
    lcd.print (setmonthtemp);
    lcd.print("  "); 
    setmonth();
}

int setday () {
  if (setmonthtemp == 4 || setmonthtemp == 5 || setmonthtemp == 9 || setmonthtemp == 11) { //30 days hath September, April June and November
    maxday = 30;
  }
  else {
  maxday = 31; //... all the others have 31
  }
  if (setmonthtemp ==2 && setyeartemp % 4 ==0) { //... Except February alone, and that has 28 days clear, and 29 in a leap year.
    maxday = 29;
  }
  if (setmonthtemp ==2 && setyeartemp % 4 !=0) {
    maxday = 28;
  }
  
   lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Day");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return setdaytemp;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) {
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    setdaytemp=setdaytemp+ knobval;
    if (setdaytemp < 1) {
      setdaytemp = 1;
    }
    if (setdaytemp > maxday) {
      setdaytemp = maxday;
    }
    lcd.print (setdaytemp);
    lcd.print("  "); 
    setday();
}

int sethours () {
    lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Hours");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return sethourstemp;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) {
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    sethourstemp=sethourstemp + knobval;
    if (sethourstemp < 1) {
      sethourstemp = 1;
    }
    if (sethourstemp > 23) {
      sethourstemp=23;
    }
    lcd.print (sethourstemp);
    lcd.print("  "); 
    sethours();
}

int setmins () {

   lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Mins");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return setminstemp;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) {
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    setminstemp=setminstemp + knobval;
    if (setminstemp < 0) {
      setminstemp = 0;
    }
    if (setminstemp > 59) {
      setminstemp=59;
    }
    lcd.print (setminstemp);
    lcd.print("  "); 
    setmins();
}

int setmode () { //Sets the mode of the timer. Auto, On or Off

    lcd.setCursor (0,0);
    lcd.print ("Set Mode");
    pushlength = pushlengthset;
    pushlength = getpushlength ();
    if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
      return TimerMode;
    }

    lcd.setCursor (0,1);
    knob.write(0);
    delay (50);
    knobval=knob.read();
    if (knobval < -1) {
      knobval = -1;
    }
    if (knobval > 1) {
      knobval = 1;
    }
    TimerMode=TimerMode + knobval;
    if (TimerMode < 0) {
      TimerMode = 0;
    }
    if (TimerMode > 2) {
      TimerMode=2;
    }
    if (TimerMode == 0) {
    lcd.print("Off");
    lcd.print("  "); 
    }
    if (TimerMode == 1) {
    lcd.print("On");
    lcd.print("  "); 
    }
    if (TimerMode == 2) {
    lcd.print("Auto");
    lcd.print("  "); 
    }
    setmode ();
}

int CalcSun () { //Calculates the Sunrise and Sunset times
    DateTime now = RTC.now();
    sunTime[3] = now.day(); // Give Timelord the current date
    sunTime[4] = now.month();
    sunTime[5] = now.year();
    myLord.SunRise(sunTime); // Computes Sun Rise.
    Sunrise = sunTime[2] * 60 + sunTime[1]; // Sunrise returned in minutes past midnight
    SunriseHour = sunTime[2];
    SunriseMin = sunTime [1];
    sunTime[3] = now.day(); // Uses the Time library to give Timelord the current date
    sunTime[4] = now.month();
    sunTime[5] = now.year();
    myLord.SunSet(sunTime); // Computes Sun Set.
    Sunset = sunTime[2] * 60 + sunTime[1]; // Sunset returned in minutes past midnight
    SunsetHour = sunTime[2];
    SunsetMin = sunTime [1];
}

void ShortPush () {
  //This displays the calculated sunrise and sunset times when the knob is pushed for a short time.
for (long Counter = 0; Counter < 604 ; Counter ++) { //returns to the main loop if it's been run 604 times 
                                                     //(don't ask me why I've set 604,it seemed like a good number)
  lcd.setCursor (0,0);
  lcd.print ("Sunrise ");
  lcd.print (SunriseHour);
  lcd.print (":");
  if (SunriseMin <10) 
     {
     lcd.print("0");
     }
  lcd.print (SunriseMin);
  lcd.setCursor (0,1);
  lcd.print ("Sunset ");
  lcd.print (SunsetHour);
  lcd.print (":"); 
    if (SunsetMin <10) 
     {
     lcd.print("0");
     }
  lcd.print (SunsetMin);        

    
  //If the knob is pushed again, enter the mode set menu
  pushlength = pushlengthset;
  pushlength = getpushlength ();
  if (pushlength != pushlengthset) {
    lcd.clear ();
    TimerMode = setmode ();

  }
  
}

}
  
 

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